The ‘Carnation Revolution’ in Portugal on April 25 1974 leads to democracy in Portugal and independence for Portugal’s African colonies. The coup is carried out without arms; the revolutionaries march through Lisbon carrying red carnations.
The Carnation Revolution transforms the regime from an authoritarian dictatorship to a liberal democracy after a two-year process of a Left-wing semi-military administration.
Although government forces kill four people before surrendering, the revolution is unusual in that the revolutionaries do not use direct violence to achieve their goals. The population, holding red carnations, convince the regime soldiers not to resist. The soldiers readily swap their bullets for flowers.
It is the end of the so-called Estado Novo, the longest authoritarian regime in Western Europe.