Palestine: The Occupied Territories

The West Bank and the Gaza Strip become distinct geographical units as a result of the 1949 armistice that divides the new Jewish state of Israel from other parts of Mandate Palestine. From 1948-67, the West Bank, including East Jerusalem, is ruled by Jordan, which annexes the area in 1950 and extends citizenship to Palestinians living there. During this period, the Gaza Strip is under Egyptian military administration.

In the 1967 war, Israel captures and occupies these areas, along with the Sinai Peninsula (from Egypt) and the Golan Heights (from Syria).

Israel establishes a military administration to govern the Palestinian residents of the occupied West Bank and Gaza. Under this arrangement, Palestinians are denied many basic political rights and civil liberties, including freedom of expression, freedom of the press and freedom of political association.

Palestinian nationalism is criminalized, as a threat to Israeli security, even displaying the Palestinian national colours is a punishable act. All aspects of Palestinian life are regulated, and often severely restricted by the Israeli military administration. For example, Israel forbade the gathering of wild thyme (za`tar), a basic element of Palestinian cuisine.

Israeli policies and practices in the West Bank and Gaza have included extensive use of collective punishments such as curfews, house demolitions and closure of roads, schools and community institutions. Hundreds of Palestinian political activists have been deported to Jordan or Lebanon, tens of thousands of acres of Palestinian land have been confiscated, and thousands of trees have been uprooted.

Since 1967, over 300,000 Palestinians have been imprisoned without trial, and over half a million have been tried in the Israeli military court system. Torture of Palestinian prisoners has been a common practice since at least 1971, and dozens of people have died in detention from abuse or neglect. Israeli officials have claimed that harsh measures and high rates of imprisonment are necessary to thwart terrorism. According to Israel, Palestinian terrorism includes all forms of opposition to the occupation – including non-violence.

Israel has built hundreds of settlements and permitted hundreds of thousands of its own Jewish citizens to move to the West Bank and Gaza, despite that this constitutes a breach of international law. Israel has justified the violation of the Fourth Geneva Convention and other international laws governing military occupation of foreign territory on the grounds that the West Bank and the Gaza Strip are not technically “occupied” because they were never part of the sovereign territory of any state.

Therefore, according to this interpretation, Israel is not a foreign “occupier” but a legal “administrator” of territory whose status remains to be determined. The international community rejects the Israeli official position that the West Bank and Gaza are not occupied, and has maintained that international law should be applied. But little effort has been mounted to enforce international law or hold Israel accountable for the numerous violations it has engaged in since 1967.

Jerusalem

The UN partition plan advocated that Jerusalem become an international zone, independent of both the proposed Jewish and Palestinian Arab states. In the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, Israel takes control of the western part of Jerusalem, while Jordan takes the eastern part, including the old walled city containing important Jewish, Muslim and Christian religious sites. The 1949 armistice line cuts the city in two. In June 1967, Israel captures East Jerusalem from Jordan and almost immediately annexes it. It reaffirms its annexation in 1981.

Israel regards Jerusalem as its “eternal capital.” Arabs consider East Jerusalem part of the occupied West Bank and wish it to be the capital of a Palestinian state.

Middle East Research and Information Project

Summer 2011

Advertisements

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s

%d bloggers like this: